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Letter c - Bible Females

THE LETTER C - bible females


CANDACE: (Greek= )

Etymology: Candace is a royal title from the Bible, ultimately deriving from the term kandake, a title for a queen or queen mother in the ancient African Kingdom of Kush; also meaning pure and innocent. In the United States, it was a popular name during the late 1970s, throughout the 1980s, and into the early 1990s.


(Acts 8:27-39)

Originally, Candace was not really a personal name but rather a Nubian (=Cushite or Ethiopian) authoritative title, not unlike Pharaoh or Caesar. This name occurs once in the Bible: in Acts 8:27, God sends Philip the evangelist on the road between Jerusalem and Gaza, to meet with an unnamed court official of Candace, queen of Ethiopia. While in his chariot the man is reading from a scroll of Isaiah (which by itself is highly remarkable as those scrolls were very rare) and allows Philip to explain it to him. The official desires to be baptized and, we may assume, takes his new found convictions home to his monarch.


There are no words in Greek that look like this name, so any Greek audience would have recognized this name as foreign. The Greek name Candace is a Hellenised transliteration of the Nubian word kdke, and in The Daily Life of the Nubians, Robert Steven Bianchi reports that the word kdke is a compound of the root "kd," meaning woman, and "ke" assumed to be either a title or index of status.


The ruling elite of oligarchic Nubia was arranged around two male members called qore, and pqr, and a female member called kdke. Bianchi writes, "It has been suggested that one might regards these three titles in the English sense of "king," "queen," and "prince."


When the title Candace was entered into the book of Acts, many early commentators had never heard of a Nubian root kdke, and understandably interpreted Candace as a name. And that's where the present name Candace comes from. Some sources may claim that it comes from a Greek word meaning glittering, but no, it comes from the Nubian word for queen.


The name Candace means Queen. As such it is somewhat parallel with the Hebrew names Milcah and Sarah.


Other "names" that aren't really names are Josheb-basshebeth, Jehudijahand Vashni.


Meaning: it is likely this is a Hellenised variation of the word in Ethiopian, a Numbian authoritative title, not unlike Pharaoh or Caesar. Robert Steven Bianchi reports that the word kdke is a compound of the root "kd," meaning woman, and "ke" assumed to be either a title or index of status. (source

the queen of the Ethiopians whose “eunuch” or chamberlain was converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the evangelist (Acts 8:27)


The country which she ruled was called by the Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the center of commercial intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and hence became famous for its wealth (Isa. 45:14).


It is somewhat singular that female sovereignty seems to have prevailed in Ethiopia, the name Candace (compare “Pharaoh,” “Ptolemy,” “Caesar”) being a title common to several successivequeens. It is probable that Judaism had taken root in Ethiopia at this time, and hence the visit of the queen’s treasurer to Jerusalem to keep the feast. There is a tradition that Candace was herself converted to Christianity by her treasurer on his return, and that he became the apostle of Christianity in that whole region, carrying it also into Abyssinia. It is said that he also preached the gospel in Arabia Felix and in Ceylon, where he suffered martyrdom. (See PHILIP.)

Bible: Candace

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CASSIA: (Hebrew= ) (Kezia)


the name of Job's second daughter (42:14), born after prosperity had returned to him.


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CHLOE: (Greek= )


The English borrowed Chloe from the French Chloé. Both forms are ultimately derived from the Greek “khlóē” meaning “small (young) green shoot of a plant”. The name is related to the Greek “khloros” meaning “greenish-yellow” in reference to the color of a small, young shoot. The origin of the Greek word “khloros” is hypothetically traced back to the Proto-Indo-European root *ghel (“to shine”); the same root where we get the English word “yellow”. In ancient Greece, Khloe was a nickname given to Demeter, apropos, the goddess of fertility, the harvest and the seasons in Greek mythology. Chloe is also considered a Biblical name, as she’s mentioned fleetingly in 1 Corinthians 1:11 in the context of “the House of Chloe” which brought decisiveness to Paul’s teachings. It was the Puritans who uncovered these lesser known Biblical names after the Protestant Reformation. It was the Puritan naming practice which favored Hebrew Old Testament and lesser known Greek New Testament names. They readily bestowed such names on their children as an act of modesty before the Lord (they were also demonstrating their full and in-depth knowledge of The Bible). Chloe is enjoying a massive revival among English-speakers everywhere. This “young green shoot” has shot up the charts in Australia, Northern Ireland, Ireland, Canada, the United States, England, Wales and Scotland. However, Chloé is still most popular among the French in France and Belgium.



Chloe, apparently, is a woman in Corinth whose household is big enough to account for Paul referring to Chloe's people (1 Corinthians 1:11). These people have informed Paul - who's then probably in Ephesus - about improprieties in the Corinthian church. This church has sent Paul a letter (7:1), which was possibly hand carried to Paul by Chloe's people, who may be the same as the Stephanas, Fortunatus and Achaicus of 16:17.


The name Chloe is an off-the-shelf noun meaning (1) the first shoot of plants in spring, the green blade of corn or grass, or (2) the young verdure of trees, foliage (Liddell & Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon). It has to do with the word (chloros), meaning green. The noun chloe isn't used in the Bible, but the word chloros shows up all over, most notably in the green (!) horse of Revelation 6:8.


The word chloros lives on in our words chlorophyll and chloroform, but the noun chloe was once a star player in the world's language and was incorporated in many a composite word: (chloekomeo), meaning to be as green as a young leaf; (chloephageo), meaning herbivorous; (chloetokos), meaning producing young shoots. And some words that are obviously coming out of the same corner: (chloanos), meaning greenish; (chloauges), meaning with a green lustre; (chlounes), meaning making its bed in the grass.


For a meaning of the name Chloe, Zodhiates' The Complete Word Study Dictionary New Testament reads Verdure, Tender Shoot. NOBS Study Bible Name List has Verdure.


Meaning: verdure (lush green vegetation. poetic/literary a condition of freshness.)

a female Christian (1 Cor. 1:11), some of whose household had informed Paul of the divided state of the Corinthian church. Nothing is known of her.

Bible: Chloe

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CLAUDIA: (Greek= )

Etymology: obscure etymology. A Roman nam

history research: 1) the Roman legendary figure Claudia Quinta. 2) The Roman vestal virgin Claudia. 3) Some claim the wife of Pontius Pilate was named Calaudia, but I know of no proof of this.



Claudia is a Roman (Latin) name, but it the Bible it occurs in the New Testament, which is written in Greek. She's immortalized in Paul's salutations at the end of his second letter to his young friend Timothy (2 Timothy 4:21). Apparently, Claudia was among the congregants of Paul's Roman church, who visited him during his second incarceration in Rome (see 1:8, 17 and 2:9). She and some others wish to greet Timothy, then in Ephesus, and Paul attaches their warmest regards to his letter. Scriptural details like that argue like no theological theory, the delight of fellowship in the Body of Christ.


The origin of the name Claudia is obscure. Apart from it obviously being the feminine variant of the masculine name Claudius, nobody seems to know what the original name-giver meant to say with it. But there are a few options:


Claudia is usually reported to come from the Latin verb claudico, meaning (2) to limp or be lame, or (2) to halt, waver, to be wanting, incomplete or defective (Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary). This verb is used to indicate the kind of physical infirmity that makes a person limp or leaves him lame all together, but also the wavering of scales during weighing, or even the untrustworthiness of a shifty person. It's perfectly conceivable that once upon a time there was a cripple or a con person who was named Claudius (Lamo) by his neighbors, who then passed on his name to his progeny as a kind of family totem. But one would expect that a name that's not really a nice thing to have people say about you, would die out rapidly. Even during the days that people spoke Latin, and were quite aware of the verb claudico, the names Claudius and Claudia were big hits.


All the more reason to look at the root group claudo:

Claudo (1)means the same as claudico, namely to limp, but claudo (2) means to shut something that is open, to close. In certain forms it even means to shut up or in something by something, to enclose, encompass, surround, imprison, hide, confine. The derived noun clausum denotes a confined space (think "claustro"phobia). This verb survives in our language in word such as clause, for instance. And via claudo -> clodo -> con-clodo it's related to our words conclusion and conclusive. Even our common verb "to close" comes from this Latin root, tells us the Oxford dictionary.


Especially in a world where dangerous animals and even more dangerous people wandered about freely, enclosure must have given the Romans a sense of security. Our words conclusion and clause still reflect firmness and perpetuity. The link to the verb claudico mentioned above is easily revealed when we realize that a limp or lame person is limited in his movements and possibly even confined to home. A lame person is a forcibly shut in person, but enclosure denotes security first and foremost.


The meaning of the name Claudia may be formally obscure but here at Abarim Publications we're guessing that it doesn't mean Lame; it means Enclosure, even Haven or slightly indirect: Safety.


Claudia is the Latin feminine form of a prominent ancient Roman family name Claudius from the Latin nickname “claudus” meaning ‘lame, crippled’. The original family name dates back to the 6th century B.C. held by a Sabine (an Italic tribe predating the founding of Rome). There is no evidence that any of the earliest Claudii were “lame” and so the etymology is sometimes debated. In any case, this patrician family was historically noted for their haughtiness, arrogance and distain for the lower classes. For those familiar with Roman history, you’ll recognize the name Claudius as having been borne by several Emperors of the 1st century. The most notable of these was Claudius who reigned as Emperor of Rome from 41 to 54 A.D. Interestingly, he was hidden from public life by his family who dismissed him as incompetent due to his disabilities which included slight deafness, a stutter and a limp (making this Claudius appear “lame”). He was declared Emperor at the age of 49 after the assassination of his nephew Caligula; turns out that old Claudius was not as “lame” as his family thought. He was generally considered an efficient ruler who engaged in many public works, expanded the borders of the Empire and took a keen interest in law. In the end, his fourth and final wife, the ruthlessly ambitious Agrippina, poisoned him to ensure the succession of her own son Nero. Claudia was also a popular name among ancient Roman women within the patrician family and was borne by a prominent female in Roman mythology (see literary references below). The female version of Claudius (Claudia) was actually popularized among English-speakers during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century owing to a minor Biblical reference in the New Testament (one of Paul’s letters to Timothy briefly mentions a Claudia). Tradition holds that this Claudia took her name from Emperor Claudius in homage after he released her father, a prisoner from Britannia. She stayed in Rome, converted to Christianity and purportedly became the mother of Linus the second Pope. She is now recognized as Saint Claudia and her feast day is August 7th. According to some Christian traditions, Claudia was also the name of Pontius Pilate’s wife and while he sat in judgment and ordered the crucifixion, she unsuccessfully attempted to convince her husband to save Jesus (although the Bible provides no evidence to this legend). Today, the name Claudia is particularly popular in Spain and Catalonia where it’s a Top 10 favorite and pronounced KLOW-dyah. It’s also a high ranking name in Chile and Australia.


Meaning: Latin? "lame" some say `Perservering `.Feminine of Claudius? As a Christian name it was very rare until the 16th century. Claudia was an ancient Roman Vestal Virgin and the daughter of Appius Claudius Pulcher, Claudo (1)means the same as claudico, namely to limp, but claudo (2) means to shut something that is open, to close. In certain forms it even means to shut up or in something by something, to enclose, encompass, surround, imprison, hide, confine. The derived noun clausum denotes a confined space (think "claustro"phobia). This verb survives in our language in word such as clause, for instance. And via claudo -> clodo -> con-clodo it's related to our words conclusion and conclusive. Even our common verb "to close" comes from this Latin root, tells us the Oxford dictionary.


a female Christian mentioned in 2 Tim. 4:21

It is a conjecture having some probability that she was a British maiden, the daughter of king Cogidunus, who was an ally of Rome, and assumed the name of the emperor, his patron, TiberiusClaudius, and that she was the wife of Pudens.

Bible: Claudia

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COZBI: (Hebrew= )

Etymology: voluptuous; lying; deceiver; deceitful

Cozbi was the daughter of the Midianite king Zur. This princess seduced Israelite men into sexual sin and idolatry. Against the commands of Moses, Zimri was seduced into having sexual relations with her, and she became his wife or concubine. She and Zimri were killed with a javelin by Phinehas, grandson of Aaron (Numbers 25).


Phineas’s actions helped end a divine plague punishment sent on the Israelites that killed 24,000 people (Numbers 25:9).

Bible: Cozbi

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CUSHITE: (Hebrew= )


Moses married a Cushite woman (Num. 12:1). From this circumstance some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and hence that Midian was Cush.

(Cushite is mentioned 3 times in relation to men)


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